Over-pronation of the foot:


A complex motion including outward rotation of the heel and inward rotation of the ankle.

Normal pronation, or “rolling inward” of the foot is necessary as the foot adapts to uneven ground. Excessive pronation, however causes the arch to flatten and soft tissues such as ligaments to stretch.

Excessive pronation causes the joint surfaces to function at unnatural angles to each other, resulting in increased rates of ‘wear and tear’ and joint deformities such as bunions and hammer toes.

When pronation occurs, joints that should be stable now have an increased range of motion and become overly flexible.

Initially, excess pronation may cause a wide range of problems such as many problems such as muscle fatigue or ankle sprains.

Prolonged strain on the muscles, tendons, and ligaments of the lower limb can cause permanent problems and deformities such as bunions or excessive wear beneath the kneecap.

Casted foot orthotics are the most effective way of dealing with excess pronation. They work by holding the joints in their ‘neutral’ position; that is, the position the joint would be in if it were not pronating.